Influencia del manejo sobre la calidad de la materia orgánica de dos suelos bajo horticultura

Zenaida Lozano P., Yudannys Aliendres, Carlos Bravo, Gustavo Rodríguez, Mavelys Delgado, Ronelly Caballero

Resumen


Con el objetivo de evaluar el impacto de las prácticas agrícolas convencionales utilizadas en el manejo de los cultivos hortícolas sobre la calidad de la materia orgánica del suelo (MOS), se seleccionaron dos suelos localizados en los sectores El Jarillo (JAR), estado Miranda y La Colonia Tovar (CTO), estado Aragua, ambos pertenecientes a la Cordillera de la Costa venezolana. En cada suelo se evaluaron dos tipos de uso: una zona no intervenida con vegetación natural (NA) y una zona intervenida (IN) con monocultivo de cebollín (Allium schoenoprasum). Para cada suelo y tipo de utilización se realizó un muestreo bajo un diseño completamente aleatorizado con cuatro repeticiones a dos profundidades (0 a 5 y 5 a 20 cm). Los parámetros evaluados incluyen: pH, conductividad eléctrica (CE), distribución de tamaño de partículas, respiración basal (RB) para medir la actividad de los microorganismos, carbono orgánico total (COT), carbono hidrosoluble (CHS), nitrógeno total (NT), y se realizó el fraccionamiento químico y físico de la materia orgánica. Los resultados muestran que en el suelo JAR la calidad de la materia orgánica se vio afectada negativamente por las prácticas agrícolas convencionales; mientras que en el suelo CTO las prácticas agrícolas mejoraron el contenido y calidad de la materia orgánica, tanto en los niveles de cada fracción como en las relaciones entre las fracciones evaluadas. Las mayores diferencias entre NA e IN se presentaron en la capa superficial del suelo JAR.

 

Abstract

In order to evaluate the impact of conventional farming practices used in the management of horticultural crops on the soil organic matter (SOM) quality, two soils located on El Jarillo (JAR), in the Miranda state, and La Colonia Tovar (CTO), in the Aragua state, were selected. Both localities belong to the Venezuelan coastal mountains. In each soil two types of use: an area with natural vegetation (NA), and area intervened with chives monoculture (Allium schoenoprasum) (IN), were evaluated. In each soil and type of use, a sampling was carried out in a completely randomized design with four replications at two depths (0-5 and 5-20 cm). The soil parameters studied included: pH, electric conductivity (CE), particle size distribution, basal respiration (RB) to measure the activity of micro-organisms, total organic carbon (TOC), water-soluble carbon (WSC), total nitrogen (TN), and performed the physical and chemical fractionation of organic matter. The results show that on the JAR soil, the organic matter quality was negatively affected by conventional agricultural practices; while on the CTO soil the agricultural practices improved organic matter content and quality, evidenced both in the content of each evaluated fraction and in the relations between those fractions evaluated. The biggest differences between NA and IN were found in the JAR topsoil.


Palabras clave


Allium schoenoprasum; fraccionamiento químico de la materia orgánica; fraccionamiento físico de la materia orgánica; Colonia Tovar; El Jarillo

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Anderson, D.W. 1982. Soil respiration. (Eds. Page, A.L.; R.H. Miller y D.R. Keeney), Agronomy Monograph Number 9. Methods of soil analysis, Part 2: Chemical and Biological Properties. 2nd ed. ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin (USA). pp. 831-871.

Anderson, J. y J. Ingram. 1993. Tropical soil biology and fertility (TSBF). Handbook of methods. C.A.B. International. 171 p.

Anderson, T. y K. Domsch. 1993. The metabolic quotient for CO2 (qCO2) a specific activity parameter to assess the effect of environmental conditions, such as pH, on the microbial biomass of forest soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. Vol 25: 393–395.

Banger, K., S. Kukal, G. Toor, K. Sudhir y T. Hanumanthraju. 2009. Impact of long-term additions of chemical fertilizers and farmyard manure on carbon and nitrogen sequestration under rice–cowpea cropping system in semi-arid tropics. Plant and Soil. Vol 318: 27–35.

Belay-Tedla, A., X. Zhou, B. Su, S.Q. Wan y Y. Luo. 2009. Labile recalcitrant and microbial carbon and nitrogen pools of a tall grass prairie soil in the US Great Plains subjected to experimental warming and clipping. Soil Biol. Biochem. Vol. 41: 110–116.

Bernal, M., M. Sánchez-Monedero, C. Paredes y A. Roig. 1998. Carbon mineralization from organic wastes at different composting stages during their incubation with soil. Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. Vol. 69: 175–189.

Bolin, B. y R. Sukumar. 2000. Global perspective. (Eds. Watson, R.T, I.R. Noble, B. Bolin, N.H. Ravindranath, D.J. Verardo y D.J. Dokken). Land use, Land use change, and forestry. A Special Report of the IPCC. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. pp. 23–51.

Bremner, J y C Mulvaney. 1982. Total nitrogen. (Eds. Page, A.L.; R.H. Miller; D.R. Keeney), Agronomy Monograph Number 9. Methods of soil analysis, Part 2: Chemical and biological properties. 2nd ed. ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin (USA). pp. 595-642.

Bulluck, L., M. Brosius, G. Evanylo, J. Ristaino. 2002. Organic and synthetic fertility amendments influence soil microbial, physicals and chemical properties on organic and conventional farms. Appl. Soil Ecol. Vol. 19: 147–160.

Chacín, A., E. Dorta, R. Hidalgo, P. De Luca y M. Salazar. 1997. Evaluación Ambiental Cuenca del Río Macarao. Ministerio del Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales Renovables, Servicio Autónomo de Conservación de Suelos y Cuencas Hidrográficas. Caracas (Venezuela). 18 p.

Chefetz, B., Y. Chen, Y. Hadar y P. Hatcher. 1998. Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter Extracted from Composted Municipal Solid Waste. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. Vol. 62: 326-332.

Chenu, C., M. Arias, E. Besnard. 2001. The influence of cultivation on the composition and properties of clay– organic matter associations in soils. (Eds. Rees, R.M., B.C. Ball, C.D. Campbell y C.A. Watson). Sustainable Management of Soil Organic Matter. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp. 207– 213.

Ciavatta, C. y M. Govi. 1993. Use of insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone and isoelectric focusing in the study of humic substances in soils and organic wastes. J. Chrom. Vol. 643: 261-270.

Ciavatta, C., M. Govi, L. Vittori y P. Sequi. 1990. Characterization of humified compounds by extraction and fractionation on solid polyvynilpyrrolidone. J. Chrom. Vol. 509: 141-146.

Conant, R., K. Paustian y E. Elliott. 2001. Grassland management and conversion into grassland: effects on soil carbon. Ecological Applications Vol. 11: 343–355.

Cortez, L. 2001. Pteridofitas epifitas encontradas en Cyatheaceae y Dicksoniaceae de los bosques nublados de Venezuela. Gayana Botánica Vol. 58:13-23.

Courtney, R. y G. Mullen. 2008. Soil quality and barley growth as influenced by the land application of two compost types. Biores. Technol. Vol. 99: 2913–2918.

Christensen, B. T. 1992. Physical fractionation of soil and organic matter in primary particle-size and density separates. (Ed. B. A. Stewart). Advances in Soil Science. Vol. 20. pp. 2-99.

Dell’Abate, M. T., S. Cannali, A. Trinchera, A. Bennedetti y P. Sequi. 1998. Thermal analysis in the evaluation of compost stability: a comparison with humification parameters. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. Vol. 51: 217-224.

Elliott, E. T. 1986. Aggregate structure and carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in native and cultivated soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. Vol. 50: 627-633.

Etchevers, J.D., R. Fischer, I. Vidal, K. Sayre, M. Sandoval, K. Oleschko y S. Román. 2000. Labranza de conservación, índices de calidad de suelo y captura de carbono. Simposio Internacional de Labranza de Conservación, Sinaloa (México). 13 p.

Ferreras, L., E. Gomez, S. Toresani, I. Firpo y R. Rotondo. 2006. Effect of organic amendments on some physical, chemicals and biological properties in a horticultural soil. Biores. Technol. Vol. 97: 635–640.

Fortun, A., J. Benayas, C. Fortun. 1990. The effects of fulvic and humic acids on soil aggregation: a micromorphological study. J. Soil Sci. Vol. 41: 563-572.

Foth, H.D. y B.G. Ellis. 1997. Soil Fertility. 2nd edition. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida (USA). 290 p.

Franzluebbers, A.J. y J.A. Stuedemann. 2002. Particulate and non-particulate fractions of soil organic carbon under pastures in the Southern Piedmont USA. Environ. Pollut. Vol. 116: S53–S62.

Gaillard, V., C. Chenu y S. Recous. 2003. Carbon mineralisation in soil adjacent to plant residues of contrasting biochemical quality. Soil Biol. Biochem. Vol. 35: 93–99.

Galantini, J. y R. Rosell. 2006. Long-term fertilization effects on soil organic matter quality and dynamic under different production systems in semiarid Pampean soils. Soil Till. Res. Vol. 87: 72-79.

Gilabert de B., J., I. López de R. y R. Pérez de R. 1990. Análisis de suelos para diagnóstico de fertilidad. Manual de métodos y procedimientos de referencia. Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Maracay (Venezuela). 164 p.

Girón, C., J. Tortolero, D. Hermoso e I. González. 2001. Efecto de diferentes residuos vegetales en la compostación de cáscaras de cacao. Agronomía Tropical (Venezuela). Vol. 51: 549-562.

Gomez, E., L. Ferreras y S. Toresani. 2006. Soil bacterial functional diversity as influenced by organic amendment application. Biores. Technol. Vol. 97: 1484–1489.

Hajabbasi, M.A., A. Jalaliant y H.R. Karimzdadeh. 1997. Deforestation effects on soil physical and chemical properties, Lordegan, Iran. Plant Soil. Vol. 190: 301–307.

Haynes, R. y G. Francis. 1993. Changes in microbial biomass C, soil carbohydrate composition and aggregate stability induced by growth of selected crop and forage species under field conditions. J. Soil Sci. Vol. 44: 665

Hernández-Hernández, R.M. y D. López-Hernández. 2002. Microbial biomass, mineral nitrogen and carbon content in savanna soil aggregates under convencional and no-tillage. Soil Biol. Biochem. Vol. 34: 1563-1570.

Insam, H. 1990. Are the soil microbial biomass and basal respiration governed by the climatic regime? Soil Biol. Biochem. Vol. 22: 525 - 532.

Jastrow, J.D. 1996. Soil aggregate formation and the accrual of particulate and mineral-associated organic matter. Soil Biol. Biochem. Vol. 28: 665–676.

Kuzyakov, Y., J.K. Friedel y K. Stahr. 2000. Review of mechanisms and quantification of priming effects. Soil Biol. Biochem. Vol. 32: 1485–1498.

Leifeld, J. e I. Kögel-Knabner. 2005. Soil organic matter fractions as early indicators for carbon stock changes under different land-use? Geoderma. Vol. 124: 143–155.

Li, Z.P., M. Liu, X.C. Wu, F.X. Han y T.L. Zhang. 2010. Effects of long-term chemical fertilization and organic amendments on dynamics of soil organic C and total N in paddy soil derived from barren land in subtropical China. Soil Till. Res. Vol. 106: 268–274.

Lorenz, K., R. Lal, C.M. Preston y K.G. Nierop. 2007. Strengthening the soil organic carbon pool by increasing contributions from recalcitrant aliphatic bio (macro) molecules. Geoderma. Vol. 142: 1-10.

Lozano, Z., C. Rivero, C. Bravo y R.M. Hernández. 2011 Fracciones de la materia orgánica del suelo bajo sistemas de siembra directa y cultivos de cobertura. Rev. Fac. Agron. (LUZ). Vol. 28: 35–56.

McCallister D. y W. Chien. 2000. Organic carbon quantity and forms as influenced by tillage and cropping sequence. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Ana. Vol. 31: 465–479.

Marinari, S., R. Mancinelli, E. Carnpiglia y S. Grego. 2006. Chemical and biological indicators of soil quality in organic and conventional farming systems in Central Italy. Ecological Indicators. Vol. 6: 701–711.

Ministerio del Ambiente y los Recursos Naturales Renovables (MARNR). 1997. Evaluación Ambiental Específica. Proyecto Embalse Macarao. Ministerio del Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales Renovables. Caracas (Venezuela). 150 p.

Morvan, T., P. Leterme, G.G. Arsene y B. Mary. 1997. Nitrogen transformations after the spreading of pig slurry on bare soil and ryegrass using 15N-labelled ammonium. Eur. J. Agron. Vol. 7: 181–188.

Moscatelli, M.C., A. Di Tizio, S. Marinari y S. Grego. 2007. Microbial indicators related to soil carbon in Mediterranean land use systems. Soil Till. Res. Vol. 97: 51–59.

Nelson, D.W. y L.E. Somners. 1996. Total carbon, total organic carbon and organic matter. (Ed. D.L. Sparks). Agronomy Monograph Number 9. Methods of soil analysis, Part 3: Chemical properties. 2nd ed. ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin (USA). pp. 961-1010.

Pascual, J.A., M. Ayuso, C. Garcia y T. Hernandez. 1997. Characterization of urban wastes according to fertility and phytotoxicity parameters. Waste Management and Research. Vol. 15: 103–112.

Parton, W.J., D.S. Schimel, C.V. Cole y D.S. Ojiva. 1987. Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in Great Plain grassland. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. Vol. 51: 1173–1179.

Paustian, K., W.J. Parton y J. Persson. 1992. Modelling soil organic matter in organic amended and nitrogen-fertilized long-term plots. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. Vol. 56, 476–488.

Pla S, I. 1983. Metodologías para la caracterización física con fines de diagnóstico de problemas de manejo y conservación de suelos en condiciones tropicales. Alcance 32. Facultad de Agronomía (Maracay). 91 p.

Pulido-Moncada, M., B. Flores, T. Rondón, R.M. Hernández y Z. Lozano. 2010. Cambios en fracciones dinámicas de la materia orgánica de dos suelos, inceptisol y ultisol, por el uso con cultivo de cítricas. Bioagro. Vol. 22: 201–210.

Rudrappa, L., T.J. Purakayastha, D. Singh y S. Bhadraray. 2006. Long-term manuring and fertilization effects on soil organic carbon pools in a Typic Haplustept of semi-arid sub-tropical India. Soil Till. Res. Vol. 88: 180–192.

Ruiz, M.; J. Paolini. 2005. Parámetros de humificación en suelos cultivados bajo riego. Agrochimica. Vol. 49: 79–86.

Sasal, C., A. Andriulo, J. Ullé, F. Abrego y M. Bueno. 2000. Efecto de diferentes enmiendas sobre algunas propiedades edáficas, en sistemas de producción hortícola del centro norte de la región pampeana. Ciencia del Suelo. Vol. 18: 95–104.

Saviozzi, A., A. Biasci, R. Riffaldi y R. Levi-Minzi. 1999. Long-term effects of farmyard manure and sewage sludge on some soil biochemical characteristics. Biol. Fertil. Soils. Vol. 30: 100–106.

Sequi, P., M. Nobili, L. Leita y G. Cercigni. 1986. A new index of humification. Agrochimica. Vol. 30: 175–179.

Silveira, M.L., N.B. Comerford, K.R. Reddy, W.T. Cooper y H. El-Rifai. 2008. Characterization of soil organic carbon pools by acid hydrolysis. Geoderma. Vol. 144: 405–414.

Six, J. y J.D. Jastrow. 2002. Organic matter turnover. (Ed. R. Lal). Encyclopedia of Soil Science. Marcel Dekker, New York (USA). pp. 936–942.

Soil Survey Staff (SSS). 2006. Soil Taxonomy. A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. 2nd ed, Washington: US Government Printing 384 Office, DC, USA, Agriculture Handbook Nº 436. 332 p.

Sørensen, P. y M. Amato. 2002. Remineralisation and residual effects of N after application of pig slurry to soil. Eur. J. Agron. Vol. 16: 81–95.

Stevenson, F.J. 1982. Humus Chemistry. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 497 p.

Stevenson, F.J. 1986. Cycles of Soil. John Wiley. United States. 380 p.

Tan, Z. y R. Lal. 2005. Carbon sequestration potential estimates with changes in land use and tillage practice in Ohio, USA. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. Vol. 111: 140–152.

Tejada, M., J.L. González, A.M. García-Martínez y J. Parrado. 2008. Application of a green manure and green manure composted with beet vinasse on soil restoration: effects on soil properties. Biores. Technol. Vol. 99: 4949–4957.

Vervoort, R.W., D.E. Radcliffe, M.L. Cabrera y M. Latimore Jr. 1998. Nutrient losses in surface and subsurface flow from pasture applied poultry litter and composted poultry litter. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. Vol. 50: 287–290.

Wander, M. 2004. Soil organic matter fractions and their relevance to soil function. Soil Organic Matter in Sustainable Agriculture. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp. 67–102.

Zalba, P.; A.R. Quiroga. 1999. Fulvic acid carbon as diagnostic feature for agricultural soil evaluation. Soil Sci. Vol. 164: 57–61.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.